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Table 2 Biological responses induced via the activation of Nrf2/ARE with mild oxidative stress

From: Mechanisms of Action Involved in Ozone Therapy: Is healing induced via a mild oxidative stress?

1) Increasing the levels of direct antioxidants, such as GSH, CO, and bilirubin.
2) Stimulating GSH regeneration via glutathione and thioredoxin reductase.
3) Increasing the levels of enzymes that detoxify oxidants and electrophils (i.e. catalase, SOD, GPx, GSTr, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), HO-1, HSP70, etc).
4) Increasing the levels of phase II enzymes.
5) Inhibiting cytokine-mediated inflammation via the induction of leukotriene B4 reductase.
6) Reducing iron overload, and subsequent oxidative stress induced via elevated ferritin.
7) Recognizing, repairing, and removing damaged proteins.
8) Protection from apoptosis induced via oxidative stress*.
9) Increasing DNA repair activity*.
  1. Ref from 1) to 7): Dinkova-Kostova AT [74].
  2. References from 8) to 9) : Villeneuve NF. [78].