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Table 1 Mechanisms of protective effects of xenon preconditioning

From: Xenon preconditioning: molecular mechanisms and biological effects

Mechanisms underlying protective effect of xenon preconditioning Organ protection
Activation of PKC-ε isoform and p38 MAPK [16] Cardioprotection
HSP27 translocation, F-actin polymerization, activation of MAPKAPK-2, PKC and p38 MAPK [17] Cardioprotection
PKC-ε translocation, mitochondrial ATP dependent KATP channels, PDK-1 [18] Cardioprotection
ERK 1/2 [19] Cardioprotection
Phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β, preservation of mitochondrial function, and inhibition of Ca2+-induced MPT pore opening [20] Cardioprotection
ADNP transcription [21] Neuroprotection
Opening of plasmalemmal KATP channels [22] Neuroprotection
Plasma IL-1β reduction and hippocampal HSP72 increase [23] Neuroprotection
HIF-1α, EPO and VEGF [2426] Renoprotection
Reduction in ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and NF-κB [27] Protection on endothelial cells
COX-2 activity [32] Cardioprotection
Enhanced phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein signaling [33] Neuroprotection
pCREB-regulated synthesis of proteins [34] Neuroprotection