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Table 4 Clinical trials published as of June, 2015

From: Beneficial biological effects and the underlying mechanisms of molecular hydrogen - comprehensive review of 321 original articles -

Authors/Year Disease Sample size Open-label (OL), double-blind (DB), or single-blind (SB) Hydrogen administration Summary of the outcome
Kajiyama et al. [236]/2008 Diabetes mellitus type II 30 DB Water Improvement of fractions of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and a glucose tolerance test.
Nakao et al. [245]/2010 Metabolic syndrome 20 OL Water Improvement of urinary markers for oxidative stress such as SOD and TBARS, and increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol.
Nakayama et al. [311]/2010 Chronic renal failure 29 OL Dialysis Amelioration of hypertension and improvement of markers for oxidative stress and inflammation.
Ito et al. [223]/2011 Inflammatory and mitochondrial myopathies 31 OL/DB Water OL: Improvement of the serum lactate/pyruvate ratio in mitochondrial myopathies and the serum matrix metalloproteinse-3 level in polymyositis/dermatomyositis.
DB: Improvement of the serum lactate.
Kang et al. [281]/2011 Radiation-induced adverse effects for liver tumors 49 OL Water Improvement of quality of life (QOL) scores during radiotherapy.
Reduction of blood reactive oxygen metabolites and maintenance of blood oxidation potential.
Ishibashi et al. [218]/2012 Rheumatoid arthritis 20 OL Water Improvement of disease activity score for rheumatoid arthritis (DAS28).
Decrease of urinary 8-OHdG.
Aoki et al. [224]/2012 Muscle fatigue 10 DB Water Improvement of muscle fatigue in young athletes
Li et al. [216]/2013 Pressure skin ulcer 22 OL Water Wound size reduction and early recovery from skin pressure ulcer.
Matsumoto et al. [201]/2013 Interstitial cystitis 30 DB Water No significant effect on symptoms.
Reduction of the bladder pain score in 11 % of patients.
Nagatani et al. [106]/2013 Cerebral ischemia 38 OL Intravenous infusion Confirmation of safety of intravenous H2 infusion.
Decrease of MDA-LDL, a serum marker for oxidative stress, in a subset of patients.
Shin et al. [45]/2013 UV-induced skin injury 28 OL Gas Prevention and modulation of UV-induced skin inflammation, intrinsic skin aging, and photo aging process through reduction of MMP-1, IL-6, and IL-1b mRNA expression.
Song et al. [243]/2013 Hyperlipidemia 20 OL Water Decrease of total serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) B100, and apoE
Xia et al. [179]/2013 Chronic hepatitis B 60 DB Water Attenuation of oxidative stress
Yoritaka et al. [96]/2013 Parkinson disease 17 DB Water Improvement of Total Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and exacerbation after termination of H2 water.
Ishibashi et al. [219]/2014 Rheumatoid arthritis 24 DB Intravenous saline infusion Improvement of DAS28.
Decrease of serum IL-6, MMP3, CRP, and urinary 8-OHdG.
Ostojic et al. [225]/2014 Sports-related soft tissue injury 36 SB H2-rich tablets and topical H2 packs Decrease of plasma viscosity.
Faster recovery from soft tissue injury.
Ostojic et al. [250]/2014 Exercise-induced metabolic acidosis 52 DB Water Increased blood alkalinity in physically active men.
Sakai et al. [230]/2014 Vascular endothelial function. 34 DB Water Increased flow-mediated dilation of branchial artery, suggesting that H2 can serve as a modulator of vasomotor function of vasculature.
Song et al. [244]/2015 Hyperlipidemia 68 DB Water Down-regulation of plasma levels of total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, followed by increased plasma pre-β -HDL, apoM, and decreased plasma oxidized-LDL, apoB100.