Results of cell viability of HaCaT cells as assessed by WST-1 assay. Figure 11-a: HaCaT cells are shown in the non-administered or non-UVA-irradiated status. Figures 11-b, -c: The morphologic features of HaCaT cells are shown in RW or HW, respectively, after irradiation with UVA ray. Figure 11-d: The cell viability is shown for HaCaT cells after UVA-irradiation by WST-1 assay. Magnification: ×400; Scale bar = 100 μm. Student’s t-test, ** p < 0.01.