- Open Access
Transperitoneal administration of dissolved hydrogen for peritoneal dialysis patients: a novel approach to suppress oxidative stress in the peritoneal cavity
© Terawaki et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 16 March 2013
Accepted: 12 June 2013
Published: 1 July 2013
Oxidative stress (OS) related to glucose degradation products such as methylglyoxal is reportedly associated with peritoneal deterioration in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, the use of general antioxidant agents is limited due to their harmful effects. This study aimed to clarify the influence of the novel antioxidant molecular hydrogen (H2) on peritoneal OS using albumin redox state as a marker.
Effluent and blood samples of 6 regular PD patients were obtained during the peritoneal equilibrium test using standard dialysate and hydrogen-enriched dialysate. The redox state of albumin in effluent and blood was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography.
Mean proportion of reduced albumin (ƒ(HMA)) in effluent was significantly higher in H2-enriched dialysate (62.31 ± 11.10%) than in standard dialysate (54.70 ± 13.08%). Likewise, serum ƒ(HMA) after administration of hydrogen-enriched dialysate (65.75 ± 7.52%) was significantly higher than that after standard dialysate (62.44 ± 7.66%).
Trans-peritoneal administration of H2 reduces peritoneal and systemic OS.
Peritoneal deterioration is one of the most serious complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy, leading to ultrafiltration failure and the more severe complication of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS). As the duration of PD increases, so does the risk of peritoneal deterioration . More than 40% of patients in Japan who were on PD treatment for longer than 8 years stopped it due to the progression of peritoneal damage . The pathological mechanisms of peritoneal damage are multi-factorial, but accumulated data have revealed the critical role of glucose degradation end-products (GDPs), i.e., chemically reactive carbonyl compounds. Methylglyoxal (MG) is one of the representative toxic GDPs, causing detrimental effects due to its rapid and indiscriminate oxidative nature , and its production of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical, methyl radical, and undetermined carbon-centered radicals . These used to be present in conventional dialysate, and also enter into the dialysate from uremic plasma . Bio-compatible low-GDP dialysate is currently available, but a Japanese multicenter nationwide study, the NEXT-PD study , revealed the occurrence of EPS even with the use of low-GDP solutions [under submission]. This indicates the need for novel therapeutic approaches to suppress possible insults from enhanced oxidative stress (OS) due to uremic oxidants in the peritoneal cavity.
Recently, the novel role of molecular hydrogen (H2) as an antioxidant has been revealed. H2 eliminates the hydroxyl radical in cultured cells and living organisms . Interestingly, H2 does not influence other ROS, including superoxide, peroxide, and nitric oxide; these ROS play important physiological roles in body . In humans, the safety of H2 has been tested, particularly in the field of deep diving. In contrast to general drugs, which usually have some harmful effects, no toxicity was found even at high concentrations of H2. H2 thus has therapeutic potential for pathological states related to ROS .
The present study tested the effects of peritoneal dialysate containing a high concentration of molecular hydrogen (H2-enriched dialysate) as a novel anti-oxidant among patients treated with PD. As a result, we demonstrated that the use of hydrogen-enriched dialysate could reduce not only peritoneal, but also systemic OS in clinical settings.
Preparation of hydrogen-enriched dialysate
Six male PD patients were studied (mean age, 55 years; range, 44–71 years; length of PD, 39 ± 17 months; weight, 68.1 ± 16.1 kg; height, 166.2 ± 5.6 cm). The pathology underlying end-stage renal disease was as follows: chronic glomerulonephritis, n = 3; diabetic nephropathy, n = 2; and hypertensive nephropathy, n = 1. Patients with active infection, bleeding, liver dysfunction, collagen disease, systemic vasculitis, cardiovascular accident within 6 months, or malignancy were excluded from this study. Performance status of all patients was class 1 according to American Heart Association criteria . All patients had been receiving daily continuous ambulatory PD (3–4 bags/day) using neutral low-GDP dextrose solution. The ethics committee of Fukushima Medical University approved this study protocol (Acceptance No. 1362) and written informed consent was obtained from all patients prior to enrollment.
Patients underwent a simplified peritoneal equilibration test (fast PET) using standard dialysate, then underwent fast PET using hydrogen-enriched dialysate 2 weeks later. Fast PET was conducted in accordance with the method of Twardowski . In brief, peritoneal dialysate (2 L of 2.5% dextrose-dialysate) was intraperitoneally infused with a Tenckhoff catheter, and the entire volume of dialysate was drained from the body after 240 min. The drained effluent was mixed well and 2 mL was collected as an effluent sample. Blood samples were obtained before and after fast PET, then 2 mL of serum was drawn after centrifugation and stored at −80°C for 1–4 weeks until analysis. Samples of serum and effluent collected to measure albumin redox were stored at −80°C for 1–4 weeks until analysis. During fast PET, blood pressure, cardiac pulse, and hydrogen concentration in the breath were measured repeatedly every 60 min. Breath hydrogen concentration was also measured in three cases just after, 15 min after, and 30 min after infusion of H2-enriched dialysate. Breath hydrogen concentration was measured using a biological gas (gas in the oral cavity) H2 measurement apparatus BGA-1000D (Aptec, Kyoto, Japan).
Measurement of albumin redox state
Human serum albumin (HSA) is a protein composed of 585 amino acids. The amino residue at position 34 from the N-terminus is a cysteine, containing a mercapto group (SH group). This mercapto group deoxidizes other substances according to the degree of surrounding OS and is itself oxidized. From the perspective of cysteine residues, HSA is a mixture of human mercaptoalbumin (HMA) in which the mercapto group is not oxidized, human non-mercaptoalbumin-1 in which disulfide bond formation is reversibly oxidized mainly by cysteine (HNA-1), and human non-mercaptoalbumin-2 which is strongly oxidized and forms a sulfinic (−SO2H) or sulfonic (−SO3H) group.
The redox state of HSA was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), as previously reported . The HPLC system consisted of an autosampler (AS-8010; Tosoh, Tokyo, Japan; injection volume, 2 μL) and double-plunger pump (CCPM; Tosoh) in conjunction with a system controller (CO-8011; Tosoh). Chromatographs were obtained using a UV6000LP photodiode alley detector (detection area, 200–600 nm with 1-nm step; Thermo Electron, Waltham, MA, USA). A Shodex-Asahipak ES-502N 7C column (10 × 0.76 cm I.D., DEAE-form for ion-exchange HPLC; Showa Denko, Tokyo, Japan; column temperature, 35 ± 0.5°C) was used in this study. Elusion was performed as linear gradient elusion with graded ethanol concentrations (0 to 1 min, 0%; 1 to 50 min, 0 → 10%; 50 to 55 min, 10 → 0%; 55 to 60 min, 0%) for serum in 0.05 M sodium acetate and 0.40 M sodium sulfate mixture (pH 4.85) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. De-aeration of the buffer solution was performed by bubbling helium.
HPLC profiles obtained from these procedures were subjected to numerical curve fitting with PeakFit version 4.05 simulation software (SPSS Science, Chicago, IL, USA), and each peak shape was approximated by a Gaussian function. Values for fractions of HMA, HNA-1, and HNA-2 to total HSA were then calculated (ƒ(HMA), ƒ(HNA-1), and ƒ(HNA-2), respectively).
Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise stated. StatView version 5.0 statistical software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) was used for statistical analysis. The significance of collected data was evaluated using a paired t-test or 1-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Scheffe’s test as a post-hoc test, as appropriate. For magnitude of correlation, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R) was used. Differences or correlations were considered significant for values of P < 0.05.
The changes of blood pressure, cardiac pulse, and breath H2 concentration during fast PET
Blood pressure mmHg
130 ± 12 / 79 ± 10
135 ± 13 / 81 ± 10
130 ± 11 / 79 ± 5
131 ± 14 / 82 ± 12
125 ± 9 / 79 ± 7
134 ± 8 / 80 ± 14
123 ± 12 / 75 ± 12
136 ± 5 / 78 ± 12
128 ± 9 / 78 ± 7
132 ± 9 / 81 ± 13
81 ± 7
82 ± 12
76 ± 6
79 ± 12
74 ± 6
78 ± 14
77 ± 4
78 ± 17
78 ± 7
81 ± 15
Breath H2 ppm
4.7 ± 6.6
3.2 ± 2.0
1.8 ± 1.3
8.3 ± 7.5*
3.0 ± 1.7
8.5 ± 11.0
4.2 ± 2.8
5.8 ± 4.8
5.5 ± 6.7
7.2 ± 4.6
Breath hydrogen concentrations before, just after, 15 min after, and 30 min after administration of H2-enriched dialysate in three cases are shown in Figure 2C. Hydrogen concentrations were significantly higher just after and 15 min after administration (22.7 ± 5.7 and 15.3 ± 3.5 ppm, respectively) than before administration (4.0 ± 1.7 ppm).
The results of serum creatinine value, fast PET and effluent test
10.53 ± 2.27
10.03 ± 2.19
Parameter of fast PET
0.71 ± 0.12
0.66 ± 0.11
Drained volume mL/4 hr
470 ± 184
442 ± 130
408 ± 175
402 ± 145
6.0 ± 3.3
5.5 ± 2.3
18.8 ± 8.5
19.5 ± 5.0
Several reports have suggested that OS participates in peritoneal deterioration, with findings such as strong cytoplasmic staining of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in peritoneal biopsy specimens of long-term PD patients , amplified protein kinase C signaling and fibronectin expression due to enhanced ROS in cultured human mesothelial cells . In terms of the central role of enhanced OS in PD peritoneal damage, Gunal et al.  showed that oral supplementation with the anti-oxidative agent trimetazidine inhibited morphological and functional deterioration of the peritoneum in a PD rat model. However, regarding suppressing OS, no clinical approaches have been available for PD treatment so far.
The present study aimed to test the therapeutic possibility of using dissolved hydrogen in the dialysate to suppress intra-cavity OS in the clinical setting. This study examined the redox state of albumin as a marker of OS. Since the change in redox state of albumin is a physiological and direct reaction, it is appropriate when evaluating real-time OS and/or detecting rapid changes in OS, as compared to other OS markers such as 8-hydroxy-2'--deoxyguanosine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and F2 isoprotanes, all of which are in vivo by-products during the process of oxidation.
This pilot study of 6 patients clearly demonstrated that single administration of H2-enriched dialysate increased levels of both peritoneal and plasma ƒ(HMA) without any detrimental effects.
Intraperitoneal administration of H2 altered the local redox state, which may indicate the therapeutic potential of delivering H2 directly to the abdominal cavity in respect to the amelioration of peritoneal damage by PD treatment. On the other hand, interestingly, significant increases in serum ƒ(HMA) levels were seen on intraperitoneal administration of H2. Rapid changes in hydrogen concentration of expired gas after the administration of H2-enriched dialysate may mean that molecular hydrogen in dialysate is rapidly distributed to the body to suppress systemic OS. Another possibility is that increased ƒ(HMA) in the cavity may be recruited into systemic circulation through the abdominal lymphatic drainage. The exact mechanisms underlying increased serum ƒ(HMA) need to be addressed in the future.
In addition, the mechanisms of increased ƒ(HMA) and decreased ƒ(HMA1) by H2 have remained unclear in this study. However, molecular hydrogen is known to directly reduce levels of the cytotoxic hydroxyl radical , through several possible mechanisms, such as regulation of particular metalloproteins by bonding, or metalloprotein-hydrogen interactions . Whether H2 directly reacts with the mercapto-residue of albumin, or H2 indirectly modifies it, should be clarified in the future.
Satisfactory anti-oxidative capability of drinking H2-enriched water without any detrimental effects has been reported, in both experimental [19–23] and clinical settings, e.g., type II diabetes mellitus , metabolic syndrome , myopathies (progressive muscular dystrophy and polymyositis/dermatomyositis) , and rheumatoid arthritis . In addition, we also reported the clinical feasibility of applying H2-enriched water as dialysate for hemodialysis treatment [28, 29]. Given these reports and our present findings, H2-enriched peritoneal dialysate could be of interest in clinical trials with respect to peritoneal preservation. Furthermore, therapeutic effects seem plausible in terms of the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients, since low f(HMA) has been a significant risk factor for cardiovascular mortality among patients treated with PD  and HD .
In summary, single administration of H2-enriched dialysate reduced peritoneal and systemic OS without any detrimental effects. A longitudinal study is warranted to ensure clinically beneficial effects, such as suppression of peritoneal deterioration and cardiovascular damage.
- Yamamoto R, Otsuka Y, Nakayama M, Maruyama Y, Katoh N, Ikeda M, Yamamoto H, Yokoyama K, Kawaguchi Y, Matsushima M: Risk factors for encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in patients who have experienced peritoneal dialysis treatment. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2005, 9: 148-152. 10.1007/s10157-005-0349-8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kawaguchi Y, Ishizaki T, Imada A, Oohira S, Kuriyama S, Nakamoto H, Nakamoto M, Hiramatsu M, Maeda K, Ota K: Study Group for Withdrawal from PD in Japan: Searching for the reasons for drop-out from peritoneal dialysis: a nationwide survey in Japan. Perit Dial Int. 2003, 23 (Suppl 2): S175-177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Glomb MA, Monnier VM: Mechanism of protein modification by glyoxal and glycoaldehyde, reactive intermediates of the Maillard reaction. J Biol Cham. 1995, 270: 10017-10026. 10.1074/jbc.270.17.10017.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakayama M, Saito K, Sato E, Nakayama K, Terawaki H, Ito S, Kohno M: Radical generation by the non-enzymatic reaction of methylglyoxal and hydrogen peroxide. Redox Rep. 2007, 12: 125-133. 10.1179/135100007X200182.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Terawaki H, Nakao M, Nakayama K, Nakayama M, Kimura A, Takane K, Mitome J, Hamaguchi A, Ogura M, Yokoyama K, Ito S, Hosoya T: Peritoneal clearance and transport of methylglyoxal. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011, 26: 753-754. 10.1093/ndt/gfq698.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kawanishi H, Nakayama M, Miyazaki M, Honda K, Tomo T, Kasai K, Nakamoto H: NEXT-PD Study Group: Prospective multicenter observational study of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis with neutral dialysis solution – the NEXT-PD study. Adv Perit Dial. 2010, 26: 71-74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ohsawa I, Ishikawa M, Takahashi K, Watanabe M, Nishimaki K, Yamagata K, Katsura K, Katayama Y, Asoh S, Ohta S: Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med. 2007, 13: 688-694. 10.1038/nm1577.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Abraini JH, Gardette-Chauffour MC, Martinez E, Rostain JC, Lemaire C: Psychophysiological reactions in humans during an open sea dive to 500 m with a hydrogen-helium-oxygen mixture. J Appl Physiol. 1994, 76: 1113-1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fontanari P, Badier M, Guillot C, Tomei C, Burnet H, Gardette B, Jammes Y: Changes in maximal performance of inspiratory and skeletal muscles during and after the 7.1-MPa Hydra 10 record human dive. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000, 81: 325-328. 10.1007/s004210050050.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ohta S: Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: potential of molecular hydrogen for preventive and therapeutic applications. Curr Pharm Des. 2011, 17: 2241-52. 10.2174/138161211797052664.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Abe T, Li XK, Yazawa K, Hatayama N, Xie L, Sato B, Kakuta Y, Tsutahara K, Okumi M, Tsuda H, Kaimori JY, Isaka Y, Natori M, Takahara S, Nonomura N: Hydrogen-rich University of Wisconsin solution attenuates renal cold ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transplantation. 2012, 94: 14-21.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- American Heart Association: Criteria for the evaluation of the severity of established renal disease: Report of the council on the kidney in cardiovascular diseases. Circulation. 1971, 44: 306-307.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Twardowski ZJ: PET-a simpler approach for determining prescriptions for adequate dialysis therapy. Adv Perit Dial. 1990, 6: 186-191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Terawaki H, Takada Y, Era S, Funakoshi Y, Nakayama K, Nakayama M, Ogura M, Ito S, Hosoya T: The redox state of albumin and serious cardiovascular incidence in hemodialysis patients. Ther Apher Dial. 2010, 14: 465-471. 10.1111/j.1744-9987.2010.00841.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ishibashi Y, Sugimoto T, Ichikawa Y, Akatsuka A, Miyata T, Nangaku M, Tagawa H, Kurokawa K: Glucose dialysate induces mitochondrial DNA damage in peritoneal mesothelial cells. Perit Dial Int. 2002, 22: 11-21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee HB, Yu MR, Song JS, Ha H: Reactive oxygen species amplify protein kinase C signaling in high glucose-induced fibronectin expression by human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Kidney Int. 2004, 65: 1170-1179. 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00491.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gunal AI, Celiker H, Ustundag B, Akpolat N, Dogukan A, Akcicek F: The effect of oxidative stress inhibition with trimetazidine on the peritoneal alterations induced by hypertonic peritoneal dialysis solution. J Nephrol. 2003, 16: 225-230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shi P, Sun W, Shi P: A hypothesis on chemical mechanism of the effect of hydrogen. Med Gas Res. 2012, 2: 17-10.1186/2045-9912-2-17.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ohsawa I, Nishimaki K, Yamagata K, Ishikawa M, Ohta S: Consumption of hydrogen water prevents atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008, 377: 1195-1198. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.10.156.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sato Y, Kajiyama S, Amano A, Kondo Y, Sasaki T, Handa S, Takahashi R, Fukui M, Hasegawa G, Nakamura N, Fujinawa H, Mori T, Ohta M, Obayashi H, Maruyama N, Ishigami A: Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents superoxide formation in brain slices of vitamin C-depleted SMP30/GNL knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008, 375: 346-350. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.08.020.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakashima-Kamimura N, Mori T, Ohsawa I, Asoh S, Ohta S: Molecular hydrogen alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by anti-cancer drug cisplatin without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009, 64: 753-761. 10.1007/s00280-008-0924-2.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cardinal JS, Zhan J, Wang Y, Sugimoto R, Tsung A, McCurry KR, Billar TR, Nakao A: Oral hydrogen water prevents chronic allograft nephropathy in rats. Kidney Int. 2010, 77: 101-109. 10.1038/ki.2009.421.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu WJ, Nakayama M, Mori T, Nakayama K, Katoh J, Murata Y, Sato T, Kabayama S, Ito S: Intake of water with high levels of dissolved hydrogen (H2) suppresses ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011, 26: 2112-2118. 10.1093/ndt/gfq727.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kajiyama S, Hasegawa G, Asano M, Hosoda H, Fukui M, Nakamura N, Kitawaki J, Imai S, Nakano K, Ohta M, Adachi T, Obayashi H, Yoshikawa T: Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Nutr Res. 2008, 28: 137-143. 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.01.008.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakao A, Toyoda Y, Sharma P, Evans M, Guthrie N: Effectiveness of hydrogen rich water on antioxidant status of subjects with potential metabolic syndrome – an open label pilot study. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010, 46: 140-149. 10.3164/jcbn.09-100.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ito M, Ibi T, Sahashi K, Ichihara M, Ito M, Ohno K: Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies. Med Gas Res. 2011, 1: 24-10.1186/2045-9912-1-24.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ishibashi T, Sato B, Rikitake M, Seo T, Kurokawa R, Hara Y, Naritomi Y, Hara H, Nagao T: Consumption of water containing a high concentration of molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an open-label pilot study. Med Gas Res. 2012, 2: 27-10.1186/2045-9912-2-27.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakayama M, Kabayama S, Nakano H, Zhu WJ, Terawaki H, Nakayama K, Katoh K, Satoh T, Ito S: Biological effect of electrolyzed water in hemodialysis. Nephron Clin Pract. 2009, 112: c9-15. 10.1159/000210569.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakayama M, Nakano H, Hamada H, Itami N, Nakazawa R, Ito S: A novel bioactive haemodialysis system using dissolved dihydrogen (H2) produced by water electrolysis: a clinical trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010, 25: 3026-3033. 10.1093/ndt/gfq196.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Terawaki H, Matsuyama Y, Matsuo N, Ogura M, Mitome J, Hamaguchi A, Terada T, Era S, Hosoya T: A lower level of reduced albumin induces serious cardiovascular incidence among peritoneal dialysis patients. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2012, 16: 629-635. 10.1007/s10157-012-0610-x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.